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Development status and trend of graphene materials

   

    石墨烯具有導電性高、韌度高、強度高、比表面積大等突出的性質,在半導體、航空航天、能源、環境等眾多領域具有廣闊的應用前景。隨著石墨烯制備與應用技術的不斷完善,石墨烯對傳統產業的升級換代和高端制造業的發展都將產生巨大的促進作用。本文對石墨烯國內外發展現狀和趨勢進行了梳理分析,并提出了我國進一步研究重點與對策建議。


一、關于石墨烯材料
  1. 定義與內涵
  石墨烯是緊密堆積成二維六方蜂窩狀晶格結構單層碳原子。單層石墨烯厚度僅為0.35納米,是目前已知最輕最薄的材料,它在室溫下的電子遷移率為2×105 cm2·V-1·s-1,是光速的1/300,理論比表面積達2630 m2·g-1,全波段光吸收只有2.3%,導熱率高達5000W·m-1·K-1,楊氏模量超過1100GPa,抗拉強度超過130GPa,且韌性非常好。
  2. 主要作用與意義

  石墨烯具有結構穩定、導電性高、韌度高、強度高、比表面積超大等突出的物理化學性質,在半導體、光伏、能源、航空航天、國防軍工、新一代顯示器等領域都將帶來革命性的技術變革,一旦量產必將會成為下一個萬億級的產業,將會成為國民經濟增長的重要組成部分。發展石墨烯產業對帶動制造業相關下游產業技術進步,提升創新能力,加快轉型升級,搶占新一輪競爭制高點,都有著重要的經濟和社會意義。


二、世界發展現狀與趨勢
  由于石墨烯的重要特性和巨大應用價值,美國、歐盟、日本和中國等80多個國家皆將石墨烯材料的發展提高到戰略高度,相繼投入數十億美元用于石墨烯材料的研究和開發。歐盟委員會將石墨烯列為僅有的兩個“未來新興技術旗艦項目”之一。美國將石墨烯視為支撐未來科技發展的戰略性產業。各國企業也積極進行石墨烯產業的布局,據統計,全球有近300家公司涉足石墨烯相關的研究和開發,其中包括IBM、杜邦、洛克希德·馬丁、波音、三星、陶氏化學、索尼等科技巨頭。
  1. 石墨烯規模化制備技術
  迄今為止,石墨烯的產業化已取得了重要進展。國外的CVD Equipment Corporation、Graphene Nanochem PLC、Vorbrck Materials、XG Sciences等公司實現了石墨烯的規模化生產。雖然噸級以上的石墨烯粉體生產線已經建成,但是普遍存在質量低、制備過程污染等問題,無法體現石墨烯的各種優異性能,嚴重阻礙了石墨烯的大規模應用。
  石墨烯薄膜產品存在因生長過程導致的結構缺陷和因轉移過程導致的表面污染,普遍電阻較高,遠大于傳統銦錫氧化物透明導電膜,無法體現其優異的電學性能,從而未在電子器件、半導體工業等領域得到廣泛應用。
  2. 石墨烯應用在功能化器件
  在太陽能電池方向,石墨烯可能是替代銦錫氧化物的理想之選。美國麻省理工學院的研究人員在柔性石墨烯片上涂覆納米線,生產出低成本、透明以及柔韌性佳的太陽能電池,能夠在窗戶、屋頂以及其他物體的表面使用。美國佛羅里達大學研究人員通過對石墨烯材料進行摻雜處理,獲得的石墨烯太陽能電池的能量轉化率高達8.6%。
  在柔性顯示方向,韓國三星和成均館大學聯合研發出40英寸的石墨烯觸摸屏面板;與首爾大學聯合開發出石墨烯觸摸屏幕,并將安裝到三星電子的“Galaxy智能型手機”。
  3. 石墨烯應用在功能涂層
  石墨烯具有特殊的片層共軛結構和優異的電學性能,可以利用石墨烯制備出同時具有物理防腐和化學防腐性能的防腐涂層。
  美國明尼蘇達大學研究人員將改性的石墨烯加入到聚氨酯涂層中,發現0.5wt%的添加量就能得到導電聚氨酯涂層,3.0wt%的添加量可將抗拉強度提升10倍。韓國濟州大學研究人員將氧化石墨烯加入醇酸樹脂制備了一種新型的納米涂料,能夠抑制細菌在其表面生長。
  4. 石墨烯應用在結構功能一體化復合材料
  石墨烯具有較高的楊氏模量和本征強度,可以利用調控石墨烯的界面性質,如親疏水性,用于提高聚合物材料的力學性能及耐磨性能等。
  美國辛辛那提大學研究人員研究了石墨烯/聚酰亞胺復合材料的橡膠態高彈模量, 發現石墨烯含量為28vol%時,復合材料橡膠態高彈區的模量增加了4000倍;美國倫斯勒理工學院研究人員研究了石墨烯/聚四氟乙烯復合材料的潤滑性能,發現10wt%的石墨烯添加量,使得復合材料的穩態磨損率降低了75%。
  結構完整的石墨烯表面能較低,與其他介質的相互作用較弱,很難與其他有機或無機材料均勻地復合。因此,石墨烯應用在復合材料領域未來的發展方向是,通過共價鍵功能化,獲得特定表面性質的石墨烯產品,解決石墨烯在復合材料中的分散和界面相容性問題。
  5. 石墨烯應用在導電油墨
  與目前普遍采用的金屬(金、銀、銅)導電填料相比,石墨烯導電填料性能更加穩定,不易氧化,附著力較強,在導電方面,石墨烯填料具有較大的優勢。
  國外石墨烯導電油墨處于實驗研發階段,正在進行產業化布局。2016年6月劍橋大學的研究員成功制備了高性能的水性石墨烯導電油墨,可以任意通過噴墨打印、絲網印刷、彈性印刷、刀式涂布等成膜方法印刷在電子器件上,不同厚度的電阻僅為~30W/ @2mm、~10W/ @25mm,成本遠遠低于其他導電油墨體系的工業生產成本。
  目前石墨烯導電油墨的電性能介于銀漿和碳漿方阻值之間,只能滿足較低電導率領域。長遠發展方向是以獲得更高導電性的石墨烯導電油墨,兼顧石墨烯的柔韌性,以滿足柔性屏幕、柔性印刷電路板等電子元器件的要求。
  6. 石墨烯應用在半導體信息產業
  石墨烯的導電、導熱性能遠超硅和其他傳統的半導體材料,隨著集成電路制造技術的不斷改進,由硅制成的晶體管大小正接近極限(15nm甚至10nm以下),而石墨烯有望取代硅成為新一代電子元器件材料。
  2008年,Meric等人首次實現石墨烯晶體管的運行速度達到14.7GHz;2010年IBM的研究人員將石墨烯晶體管的截止頻率提高到100GHz;2012年石墨烯晶體管的截止頻率已達到350GHz,已遠超同等條件下的硅基晶體管。
  石墨烯是零禁帶材料,以此作為溝道的晶體管很難被關斷,因此,石墨烯晶體管獲得較高的開關比率一直難以實現。未來的發展方向主要是研發通過摻雜取代晶格結構中的碳原子、構建多維納米結構或形成異質結等方法,克服零禁帶問題,以實現高的開關比。
  7. 石墨烯應用在能量儲存與轉換
  石墨烯因具有極大的比表面積、卓越的導電性能、化學穩定性好,以及力學性能優異,在鋰離子電池、鋰-硫電池等能源存儲與轉化方面應用前景巨大。
  美國西北大學的研究人員利用自組裝的方法制備了FeF3/石墨烯正極材料,該經100次循環仍有260mAh?g-1的比容量,是商業化正極材料的2倍。他們采用抽慮方法制備了硅/多孔石墨烯薄膜負極材料,該材料經200次循環仍有1500mAh·g-1的容量。

  但是由于石墨烯的比表面積大,鋰鹽電解質在石墨烯表面會形成鈍化薄膜(SEI膜),消耗高達30%~50%的首次放電容量,致使首次循環庫倫效率較低。未來的發展方向主要是構建結構高度有序的石墨烯復合結構,表面均勻分布孔徑均一的納米孔,各層緊密接觸以提高正負極材料的容量、功率以及循環壽命。


三、我國發展現狀與水平
我國政府高度重視石墨烯發展,工業和信息化部、發展改革委和科技部聯合發布的《關鍵材料升級換代工程實施方案》中明確提出支持石墨烯實現批量穩定生產和規模應用。工信部專門印發了《加快石墨烯產業創新發展的若干意見》。習近平主席在參觀英國國家石墨烯研究院時提出:“中英兩國在石墨烯研究領域完全可以實現強強聯合”。
我國石墨烯研發起步相對較晚,但2010年后發展迅速,整體接近國外先進水平,部分領域實現了領先。在基礎科研方面,全球石墨烯研究論文超過12萬篇,中國占有40%,排名第一;全球專利申請總量為49229件,中國專利申請量為23953件,占比48.65%,排名第一。
在石墨烯產業化方面,各級政府也在積極加快產業化步伐,石墨烯薄膜和粉體已實現量產,下游應用正穩步推進。全國石墨烯產業已形成江蘇常州、浙江寧波、北京等城市為首的格局。國內江南石墨烯研究院、常州二維碳素、寧波墨西等企業成為石墨烯產業的開拓者。
1. 石墨烯規模化制備技術
2014年5月,常州二維碳素科技有限公司宣布其第一條年產3萬平方米石墨烯透明導電薄膜生產線實現量產;2014年5月28日,寧波墨希公司推出了平均厚度3納米的石墨烯微粉材料,售價僅為1元/克;2016年5月,山西煤化所完成了低成本高品質石墨烯的噸級工程化放大,中試技術通過省科技廳鑒定,形成10噸級成套工藝技術。
2. 石墨烯應用在功能化器件
香港理工大學的研究人員將鈣鈦礦石墨烯太陽能電池電源轉換效率提高到12%,超越標準的透明太陽能電池,它的每瓦電力成本低于0.5元,意味著生產成本比硅太陽能電池成本低了50%以上;浙江大學的研究人員將石墨烯太陽能電池的效率提高到18.5%,這是目前國際上獲得的最高轉化效率的石墨烯/半導體異質結太陽能電池。
3. 石墨烯應用在功能涂層
我國在石墨烯功能涂層領域布局較早,處于國際領先地位。常州第六元素材料科技股份有限公司設計的石墨烯防腐涂料耐鹽霧時間達3000小時以上,超出傳統防腐涂料性能5倍以上,并于去年通過了工信部的國家技術認定;濟寧利特納米技術有限責任公司將石墨烯加入到丙烯酸鋅樹脂中,制備了防污防腐涂料,耐鹽霧時間超過1000小時,公司已完成2000噸石墨烯防腐涂料生產線的建設。
4. 石墨烯應用在結構功能一體化復合材料
我國在石墨烯基復合材料的研究已處于國際領先水平,主要集中在對復合材料強度、導電和導熱方面的研究。上海交通大學的研究人員將功能化氧化石墨烯原位聚合成石墨烯/聚酰亞胺納米復合材料,在保持材料穩定性基礎上將彈模量提高了86.4%。清華大學、大連應化所、南開大學等研究機構也均致力于此方面的研究。
5. 石墨烯應用在導電油墨
我國在石墨烯導電油墨產業化方向與國際同步。山西煤化所成功制備出性能優異的水性石墨烯導電油墨,電阻僅為~20W/ @15mm。青島瑞利特新材料科技有限公司建成了國內首條30噸/年的石墨烯導電油墨生產線。
6. 石墨烯應用在半導體信息產業
在半導體信息產業領域,我國與發達國家仍然存在一定的差距。中科院重慶綠色智能技術研究院成功制備出7英寸的柔性石墨烯觸摸屏。中科院微電子所制備出了具有極高振蕩頻率的石墨烯射頻器件。山東大學在2英寸SiC襯底上生長出大面積石墨烯,進一步推進石墨烯半導體器件的發展。
7. 石墨烯應用在能量儲存與轉換

我國石墨烯應用在能量存儲與轉換領域已經成功趕超其他國家,處于國際領先地位。2016年7月8日,東旭光電推出了世界首款石墨烯基鋰離子電池產品—“烯王”。該產品與普通電池相比不僅可在滿足5C條件下,實現15分鐘內快速充放電,而且可在-30~80℃環境下工作,循環壽命更高達3500次左右。


四、我國進一步發展重點與對策建議
  1. 發展重點
  “十三五”前期發展重點集中于石墨烯原材料的批次穩定和可控制備,在能源、復合材料、環境等領域的產業化延伸,逐步形成產業集群;“十三五”后期發展重點集中于石墨烯產業鏈的延伸及對不同領域的引領作用,全面拓展石墨烯在能源、復合材料、環境領域的產業集群。逐漸拓展石墨烯在電子薄膜、電子器件等領域的產業化進程,并在基礎材料領域的研發取得世界領先地位。
  同時,石墨烯粉體具有成本低、導熱和導電性能優異的特點,有望短期內在能源、環境和復合材料等領域實現規模化應用,應該加強在這些領域的應用技術研究。
  石墨烯薄膜具有高質量、少缺陷和卓越的導電性能,在半導體、新一代顯示器等領域呈現了巨大的應用前景,應重點攻克。
  2. 對策與建議
  為了更有效地促進我國石墨烯技術及產業發展,建議進一步采取以下對策:
  首先,加強統籌。在國家層面上將石墨烯產業歸口在一個部門管理,組織專家進行調研,根據不同地區優勢,鼓勵石墨烯企業并購重組,提高石墨烯產業集中度;政府部門應完善公共研發、技術轉化與交流等平臺,聯合企業、院所建立產品開發、技術合作和權益共享的石墨烯產業化研究平臺,避免低水平重復建設和市場的無序競爭。
  其次,在石墨烯技術與應用方面,由于石墨烯應用在電子領域還處在實驗階段,最快可實現產業化應用的領域包括能源、環境和復合材料等領域。因此,建議“十三五”期間,由中央政府主導,結合地方政府,聯合科研院所和企業,集中力量,通過發揮產學研各方創新資源和技術優勢,實現石墨烯在這些領域的重大突破。

  同時,應進一步推出產學研合作。目前,我國石墨烯產業正處于商業化應用的關鍵時期,政府部門應引導企業攜手高校、院所,通過“產學研”相結合,充分發揮高校、科研院所與企業在基礎研究和工程化生產方面的各自優勢,協同攻克石墨烯產業化中的關鍵技術。


本文轉載自科技中國
作者:史冬梅 何大方 張雷(科技部高技術研究發展中心;江南石墨烯研究院;鋼鐵研究總院)
首發刊載于《科技中國》雜志2018年1月第1期 前沿


Graphene is characterized by high conductivity, high toughness, high strength and large surface area. It has broad application prospects in many fields such as semiconductor, aerospace, energy and environment. With the continuous improvement of graphene preparation and application technology, graphene will greatly promote the upgrading of traditional industries and the development of high-end manufacturing industry. In this paper, the development status and trend of graphene at home and abroad are analyzed and analyzed, and further research emphasis and countermeasures are put forward.
1. About graphene material.
1. Definition and connotation.
Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms that are tightly packed into a two-dimensional, six-sided honeycomb lattice structure. Single-layer graphene thickness of only 0.35 nm, is the most light and thin material, known in the electron mobility at room temperature for 2 x 105 cm2, s. V - 1-1, is 1/300 of the speed of light, theory, specific surface area of 2630 m2 g, 1, all band of light absorption of only 2.3%, thermal conductivity is as high as 5000 w. k. m - 1-1, young's modulus of more than 1100 gpa, tensile strength of more than 130 gpa, and toughness is very good.
2. Main role and significance.
Graphene has stable structure, high electrical conductivity, high toughness, high strength, large specific surface area, such as outstanding physical and chemical properties, in the semiconductor, pv, energy, aerospace, national defense, a new generation of displays, and other fields will bring revolutionary technological change, once the mass production will be the next trillion-dollar industry, will become an important part of national economic growth. Graphene industry related downstream industries to drive the technological progress, improve innovation ability, to speed up the transformation and upgrading, grab a new round of competition the commanding heights, has important economic and social significance.
The current situation and trend of world development.
Due to the important properties of graphene and great application value, such as the United States, the European Union, Japan and China more than 80 countries are to improve the development of graphene materials to a strategic height, successively invested billions of dollars on research and development of graphene materials. The commission listed graphene as one of only two "future flagship projects for emerging technologies". The United States sees graphene as a strategic industry that supports future technological development. National enterprises are also actively for graphene industry layout, according to statistics, nearly 300 companies involved in global graphene related research and development, including IBM, dupont, lockheed Martin, Boeing, samsung, dow chemical, SONY and other technology giants.
1. Preparation technology of graphene scale.
So far, the industrialization of graphene has made important progress. Overseas CVD Equipment Corporation, Graphene Nanochem PLC, Vorbrck Materials, XG Sciences and other companies have realized the scale production of Graphene. Although t above graphene powder production line has been built, but widespread pollution problems such as low quality, preparation process, cannot reflect the variety of excellent performance of graphene, seriously hindered the large-scale applications of graphene.
Graphene film product defects of structure as a result of growth process and as a result of the transfer process of surface contamination, common resistance is higher, more traditional ITO transparent conductive film, cannot reflect the excellent electrical properties, thus not in fields such as electronics, semiconductor industry is widely used.
2. Graphene is used in functionalized devices.
In the direction of solar cells, graphene could be an ideal alternative to indium tin oxide. Researchers at the Massachusetts institute of technology in the flexible graphene sheet coated nanowires, produce low cost, good transparency and flexibility of solar cells, and is able to use Windows, roofs and other surfaces. Researchers at the university of Florida in the United States have obtained an 8.6 percent energy conversion rate for graphene solar cells by doping them with graphene materials.
In the direction of flexible display, South Korea's samsung and sungkyu university jointly developed a 40-inch graphene touch panel. A joint development of the graphene touch screen with Seoul university will be installed on the samsung electronics' Galaxy smart phone.
3. Graphene is applied in functional coating.
Graphene has special laminar conjugate structure and excellent electrical properties. It can be used to produce anticorrosive coating with both physical and chemical preservative properties.
The university of Minnesota researchers add the modification of graphene to the polyurethane coating, found that adding amount of 0.5 wt % can get conductive polyurethane coating, adding amount of 3.0 wt % can improve 10 times the tensile strength. Researchers at jeju university in South Korea have prepared a new nano-coating that inhibits bacteria from growing on its surface by adding alkyd resin.
4. Graphene is used in structural functional integration composite materials.
Graphene has higher young's modulus and intrinsic strength, which can be used to control the interface properties of graphene, such as hydrophilic water, to improve the mechanical properties and wear resistance of polymer materials.
The university of Cincinnati, the researchers studied graphene/polyimide composite rubber state high elastic modulus, found that graphene content is 28 vol %, high elastic rubber composite state OuDeMo quantity increased 4000 times; American rensselaer polytechnic institute researchers studied lubrication properties of graphene/ptfe composites, found that 10 wt % of graphene addition amount, makes the steady state wear rate of the composite materials was reduced by 75%.
The graphene surface with intact structure can be relatively low, and the interaction with other media is weak, and it is difficult to compound with other organic or inorganic materials. Therefore, graphene applications in the field of composite material is the development direction of the future, through covalent functionalization, get specific surface properties of graphene products, solve the graphene dispersion and interface compatibility problem in composite materials.


5. Graphene is used in conductive ink.
With the current widely used metal (gold, silver, copper) compared to the conductive fillers, graphene conductive filler performance is more stable, not easy oxidation, adhesion strong, in terms of conductive graphene filler has great advantage.
The foreign graphene conductive ink is in the experimental research and development stage, and is in the industrialization layout. In June 2016, researchers at the university of Cambridge succeeded in preparation of high-performance water-based graphene conductive ink, can be arbitrarily by inkjet printing, screen printing and flexible printing, knife coating film forming methods, such as printing on the electronic device, the resistance of the different thickness is only ~ 30 w / @ 2 mm, 25 mm ~ 10 w / @, cost is much lower than other conductive ink system of industrial production cost.
At present, the electrical properties of graphene conductive ink are between the silver pulp and the carbon slurry resistance, which can only meet the low conductivity field. The long-term development direction is to obtain the higher conductivity of graphene conductive ink, taking into account the flexibility of graphene to meet the requirements of flexible screen, flexible printed circuit board and other electronic components.
6. Graphene is used in the semiconductor information industry.
Electric and thermal conductivity of graphene performance far exceeds the silicon and other traditional semiconductor materials, with the continuous improvement of integrated circuit manufacturing technology, made of silicon transistor size is close to the limit (below 15 nm to 10 nm even), and graphene is expected to replace silicon as a new generation of electronic materials.
In 2008, Meric et al. first realized the running speed of graphene transistors at 14.7ghz; In 2010, IBM researchers raised the cutoff frequency of graphene transistors to 100GHz; In 2012, the cutoff frequency of the graphene transistor reached 350GHz, far exceeding the silicon base transistor under the same condition.
Graphene is a zero-forbidden material, which makes it difficult to turn off the transistor as a channel. Therefore, the high switching ratio of graphene transistors has been difficult to achieve. The future development direction is mainly developed by doping instead of carbon atoms in the lattice structures, build a multidimensional methods of nanometer structure or form heterojunction, overcome zero band gap problem, in order to realize the switch of high than.
7. Graphene is used in energy storage and conversion.
Graphene because of great specific surface area, excellent electric conductivity, good chemical stability, and mechanical performance is excellent, in lithium ion batteries, lithium - sulfur battery energy storage and transformation aspects, such as great prospect of application.
Researchers at northwestern university have used self-assembled methods to prepare FeF3/ graphene anode materials, which still have a capacity of 260mAh?g-1 over 100 cycles, twice as much as commercial positive materials. They prepared the silicon/porous graphene film anode materials by means of the extraction method, and the material was still 1500mAh·g-1 in 200 cycles.
But, because of the large specific surface area of graphene lithium salts electrolyte on the surface of graphene can form passivation film (SEI film), up to 30% ~ 50% of the initial discharge capacity, the first cycle coulomb efficiency is low. The future development direction is mainly to build highly ordered structure of graphene composite structure, surface evenly distributed aperture uniform nanopores, each layer close contact in order to improve the capacity of the anode materials, power and cycle life.
Iii. Current situation and level of China's development.
The Chinese government attaches great importance to the development of graphene, the ministry of industry and information technology and national development and reform commission and ministry of science and technology jointly issued the "key material upgrade project implementation plan" clearly put forward in support of graphene steady production and scale of application in batches. The ministry of industry and information technology has issued a number of opinions on accelerating the innovation and development of graphene industry. President xi jinping said during a visit to the UK's national graphene institute that "China and the UK can achieve a strong alliance in the field of graphene research".
The development of graphene in China is relatively late, but it has developed rapidly since 2010 and is close to the advanced level of foreign countries as a whole. In terms of basic scientific research, the global graphene research paper has more than 120, 000 papers, and China accounts for 40%, ranking first. The total number of global patent applications is 49229, and the number of patent applications in China is 23953, accounting for 48.65%, ranking first.
In terms of the industrialization of graphene, governments at all levels are also actively accelerating the industrialization step. Graphene films and powders have achieved mass production, and downstream applications are progressing steadily. The national graphene industry has formed the pattern of jiangsu changzhou, zhejiang ningbo, Beijing and other cities. Domestic jiangnan graphene institute, changzhou two-dimensional carbon, ningbo, and other enterprises have become the pioneers of graphene industry.
1. Preparation technology of graphene scale.
In May 2014, changzhou two-dimensional carbon technology co., ltd. announced its first production line of 310,000 square meters of graphene transparent conductive film production line. On May 28, 2014, the company launched the graphene micropowder materials with an average thickness of 3 nanometers, and the price was only 1 yuan per gram. In May 2016, shanxi coal chemical co., ltd. completed the tonnage engineering magnification of low cost and high quality graphene, and the pilot technology was approved by the provincial science and technology department to form a 10-ton complete process technology.
2. Graphene is used in functionalized devices.
Researchers at the university of Hong Kong polytechnic will perovskite graphene solar battery power conversion efficiency up to 12%, beyond the standard transparent solar cells, and it costs less than $0.5 per watt of electricity, means that the cost of production by more than 50% lower than the cost of silicon solar cells; Researchers at zhejiang university have increased the efficiency of graphene solar cells to 18.5 percent, the highest conversion efficiency of graphene/semiconductor solar cells currently available internationally.
3. Graphene is applied in functional coating.
China has an early stage in the field of graphene functional coating, and is in the leading position in the world. Changzhou sixth element material technology co., LTD. Design of graphene anticorrosive coating resistance to salt fog time up to 3000 hours, beyond traditional anticorrosion coating is more than 5 times, and last year decided by the national ministry of technology; Jining, m technology co., LTD will Turner graphene joining in zinc acrylic resin, antifouling anticorrosive coating was prepared, salt fog resistance time of more than 1000 hours, the company has completed the construction of 2000 tons of graphene anti-corrosion coating production line.
4. Graphene is used in structural functional integration composite materials.
The research on graphene-based composites has been in the leading international level, focusing on the research on the strength, conductivity and thermal conductivity of composite materials. The researchers at Shanghai jiaotong university were able to aggregate the functionalized graphene into graphene/polyimide nano-composite materials, increasing the modulus of elasticity by 86.4% on the basis of maintaining the stability of the material. Research institutions such as tsinghua university, dalian yinghua institute and nankai university are also committed to this research.
5. Graphene is used in conductive ink.
The industrialization direction of graphene conductive ink and international synchronization. Shanxi coal chemical co., LTD. Has successfully prepared an excellent water-based graphene conductive ink with a resistance of ~20W/ @15mm. Qingdao ruilite new material technology co., LTD. Has built the first 30 tons of graphene conductive ink production line in China.
6. Graphene is used in the semiconductor information industry.
In the field of semiconductor information industry, there is still a gap between China and developed countries. A 7-inch flexible graphene touch screen has been successfully prepared by the chongqing green intelligent technology research institute of the Chinese academy of sciences. A graphene rf device with extremely high oscillation frequency was prepared by the microelectronics of Chinese academy of sciences. Shandong university has developed a large area of graphene on the 2-inch SiC substrate to further promote the development of graphene semiconductor devices.
7. Graphene is used in energy storage and conversion.
The application of graphene in China has successfully surpassed other countries in the field of energy storage and transformation, and is in the international leading position. On July 8, 2016, dongxuguang electric launched the world's first graphene-based lithium ion battery product, "king of allene". The product compared with ordinary batteries can be under the condition of meet the 5 c, not only realize the fast charging and discharging within 15 minutes, and can work under the environment of 30 ~ 80 ℃, the cycle life of 3500 times or so higher.
Fourth, China's further development focus and countermeasures and Suggestions.
1. Development focus
"Much starker choices-and graver consequences-in prophase development focused on graphene batch stability and controllable preparation of raw materials, in the field of energy, environment, such as composite materials, industrialization, gradually formed industrial cluster; "Much starker choices-and graver consequences-in" late development focus in graphene industry chain extension, and the leading role in the field of different developing graphene in the field of energy, composite materials, environmental industry cluster. It has gradually expanded the industrialization process of graphene in electronic film, electronic devices and other fields, and achieved world leading position in the research and development of basic materials.
At the same time, the graphene powders has the characteristics of low cost, excellent thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity, is expected to short-term internal energy, environment and composite materials, and other fields to achieve large-scale application, should strengthen the application technique research in these areas.
Graphene films have high quality, low defect and excellent electrical conductivity. They have a great application prospect in semiconductor, new generation display and so on.
2. Countermeasures and Suggestions.
In order to promote the development of graphene technology and industry in China more effectively, the following countermeasures are proposed:
First, strengthen co-ordination. At the national level, graphene industry under centralized management in a department, organize experts research, based on different regional advantages, encourage graphene enterprise merger, acquisition and reorganization, improve the graphene industrial concentration; Government departments should improve public research and development, technology transfer and exchange platform, such as joint enterprises and institutions set up product development, technical cooperation and equity sharing platform for the industrialization of graphene research, avoid low level repetitive construction and disorderly competition of the market.
Secondly, in terms of graphene technology and application, as a result of graphene applications in electronics field is still at the experimental stage, the fastest can realize industrialization application areas including energy, environment, and composite materials, etc. Therefore, we suggest that during the period of "much starker choices-and graver consequences-in", dominated by the central government, combined with the local government, joint scientific research institutes and enterprises, concentrated force, by giving full play to the advantages of enterprises innovation resources and technology, achieve a major breakthrough in the discovery of graphene in the field of these.
At the same time, the cooperation should be further promoted. Graphene industry at present, our country is in a critical period of commercial application, the government should guide the enterprises to join hands in colleges and universities, institutes, through the combination of "production", give full play to universities, research institutes and enterprises in the aspect of basic research and engineering production of their respective advantages, together to conquer the key technique in the industrialization of graphene.
This article is reproduced from technology China.
Author: shi dongmei ho zhang lei (high technology research and development center of science and technology department; Jiangnan graphene institute; Iron and steel research institute
First published in "science and technology China" magazine in January 2018 at the forefront of the first issue.



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